Doxa

Page V


More on The Triune God in Hebrew Thought?






The Talmud. The Talmud is Orthodox, and the Targimum are part of the Talmud. Jews place the auhtority of the Talmud almost equal to that of the OT.

The Targim's are clearly othodox.The Targimum were officially accepted by the Rabbis, and official enoguh to be used in worship services.

From New Advent: Catholic Encyclopida

"The official Targum to the Pentateuch is designated by the name of Onkelos. In the Babylonian Talmud and in the Tosephta, Onkelos is the name of a proselyte who is mentioned as a contemporay of the elder Gamaliel ("Aboda zara", 11a; cf. "Tos. sabb.", 8=p. 119, ed. Zuckermandel). The labours of Onkelos are referred to in "Meg.", 3a, in the following words: "Rab Jeremiya, according to others Rab Hiya bar Abba says: 'According to the statement of Rab Eliezer and Rab Josua, Onkelos the proselyte has said, that is, has orally formulated, the Targum of the Torah'". Gaon Sar Shalon (d. 859) was the first who, taking this passage as a basis, called the Pentateuch-Targum the Targum of Onkelos

Targum is the distinctive designation of the Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old Testament. After the return from exile Aramaic gradually won the ascendancy as the colloquial language over the slowly decaying Hebrew until, from probably the last century before the Christian era, Hebrew was hardly more than the language of the schools and of worship. As the majority of the population ceased to be conversant with the sacred language it became necessary to provide translations for the better understanding of the passages of the Bible read in Hebrew at the liturgical services. Thus to meet this need it became customary to add to the portions of the Scriptures read on the Sabbath an explanatory oral translation a Targum. At first this was probably done only for the more difficult passages, but as time went on, for the entire text. The "Mishna" gives more elaborate instructions as to the way in which this translating should be done. According to the "Megillah" (IV, 4), when the lesson to be read aloud was from the "Torah" only one verse was to be read to the translator (Methurgeman). When the lesson was from the "Nebi'im" it was permitted to read three to him, unless each verse formed a special division. The directions also state which portions are to be read aloud but not translated (cf. for instance "Meg.", IV, 10), and a warning is given against translations that are either to free, palliative, allegorical, etc.


The Targimum: Ancient Tradition.

While it is true that most of them were produced in the Second centruy, and edited and re-worked in the 5-8th, it is also true they they are the products of a much more ancient oral tradition, one which goes back to the fist century, and perhaps even to the early return from exile.

[New Advent]

"In any case the Targum, at least the greater part of it, is old, a fact indicated by the connection with Rab Eliezer and Rab Josua, and belongs probably to the second, or it may be to the first century of our era. It arose, as the idiom shows, in Judea, but it received official recognition first from the Babylonian Rabbis, and is therefore called by them "our Targum", or is quoted with the formula "as we translate". Rab Natronay (d. 869) in speaking of this says, that it is not permitted to replace it in the services of the synagogue by any other translation of the Pentateuch. The high reputation of this authorized translation is shown by the fact that it has a Masorah of its own. The fixing of the written form, and thereby the final settlement of the text as well, should not be assigned to a date before the fifth century.


Targum language faithful rendering

The sketpics quote from this very article (New Advent) and use it to try and claim that the Targimum distort the Hebrew meaning. While they are not exact and do at times replace certain words of phrases with theologically biased renderings, the langaue is very faithful, and those enstances where theology takes a hand,the use of it is very justified.

"The language is, in general, an artificial form of speech closely connected with the Biblical Aramaic. It is probably not the spoken Aramaic used as a dialect by the Jewish people, but a copy made by scholars of the Hebraic original, of which the Targum claims to give the most faithful reproduction possible. In doing this the Aramaic language is treated similarly to the Greek in the translation of Aquila, consequently the many Hebraic idioms. There is no positive proof (Dalman, "Gramm", 13) of a corrupting influence of the Babylonian dialect as Noldeke held ["Semit. Sprachen" (1887), 32; (2nd ed., 1899), 38]. As regards the character of the translation it is, taken altogether, fairly literal. Anthropomorphic and anthropopathic expressions are avoided by roundabout expressions or in other ways; obscure Hebrew words are often taken without change into the text; proper names are frequently interpreted, as Shinar-Babylon, Ishmaelites-Arabs; for figurative expressions are substituted the corresponding literal ones. Haggadic interpretation is only used at times, for instance in prophetic passages, as Gen., xlix; Num., xxiv; Deut., xxxii.[Ibid]


Targim printed with Hebrew Bible.

Becasue the Targimum is printed with the Hebrew Bible,and in Study additions for Rabbis, there is no basis for the claim that they are "heterodox" and represent the "outsider" fadtions and the marginalized such as those at Qumran. Anti-Trinitirians have made this charge, but it cant' be proven.

"This Targum was first printed at Bologna (1482) together with the Hebrew text of the Bible and the commentary of Rashi; later, in the Rabbinical Bibles of Bomberg and Buxtorf, and with a Latin translation in the Complutensian Polyglot (1517), and the Polyglots of Antwerp (1569), Paris (1645), and London (1657). Among separate editions of the Targum special mention should be made of that printed in 1557 at Sabbioneta. More modern editions are: Berliner, "Targum Onkelos" (2 vols., Berlin, 1884), in which vol. I contains the text according to the Sabbioneta edition, and vol. II, elucidations; the Yemanites at Jerusalem have printed with an edition of the Pentateuch (sefer Keter tora) from MSS. the Arabic translation by Saadya (Jerusalem, 1894-1901), in which publication the vowel pointing above the line has been changed to sublinear pointing; Barnheim, "The Targum of Onkelos to Genesis" (London, 1896), on the text of the Yemen manuscripts. In addition to the Latin translations in the Polyglot Bibles there is one by Fagius (Strasburg, 1546); there is also an English translation by Etheridge, "The Targum of Onkelos and Jonathan ben Uzziel on the Pent., with the Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum", from the Chaldee (2 vols., London, 1862-65).[Ibid]


Targim Pseudo Jonnathan is Orthodox.

This Targim is recognized as theoloigcally akin to the thought of Rabbi Hillel, for this reason it is assinged to his pupil, Jonathan ben Uzziel, thus it is not heterodox.

"THE TARGUM OF JONATHAN (YONATHAN)The Targum to the Prophets (priores, historical books; posteriores, the actual Prophets) now in existence is ascribed to Jonathan ben Uzziel, who is said on the authority of the Babylonian "Megillah", 3a, to have formulated it orally, in accordance with the instructions of Haggai, Zachariah, and Malachi. This assertion probably means that in his exposition he gives the traditional interpretation that had been handed down from one generation to another since early times. According to the Babylonian "Sukkah" (28a = baba bathra 134a), he was the most noted pupil of the elder Hillel, and is therefore assigned to the first Christian century. The Babylonian Talmud in quoting passages from this Targum ascribes them to Rab Joseph bar Hiya (d. 333), the head of the school at Pumbaditha. Rab Joseph was regarded as a great authority on the tradition of the Targum and his judgment on the translation of many individual passages was eagerly listened to; he may perhaps be considered as the editor of this Targum. For Jonathan as for Onkelos the final settlement of the written form did not occur until the fifth Christian century. Cornill claims to show ("Einleitung", 2nd., ed., 1893, p. 308) that the Targum on the Prophets is older than the Torah-Targum, but the reasons produced are not convincing (cf. Dalman, 15, passim).[Ibid]


Pseudo Johnathan most like Onekelos

"Linguistically, this Targum approaches most closely that of Onkelos; in grammatical construction the two are alike but the words used differ, and this Targum is more paraphrastic. In the historical books Jonathan himself is often the expounder, but in the actual prophetic books the exposition is in reality Haggadic. The religious opinions and theological conceptions of the era that are interwoven are very instructive. The text, further, is not free from later additions; from this cause arise the double translations of which the Targum contains several.[Ibid]


Targim Johanathan printed with Hebrew Text, by the Othodox, this would not be the case if it were Heterodox.

The "Prophetae priores" was the first printed with the Hebrew text and the commentaries of Gimhi and Levi at Leiria, Portugal, in 1494. At a later date the whole Targum was printed in the Rabbinical Bibles of Bomberg and Buxdorf and in the Polyglot Bibles of Antwerp, Paris, and London. The last edition is that of de Lagarde, "Prophetae chaldice e fide codicis Reuchliniani" (Leipzig, 1872). There are supplementary additions to this from an Erfurt MS. in "Symmicta", I, 139. The Targum to the Haphtarah is to be found in what is called the Pentateuch edition of the Yemanites at Jerusalem. English translations are: Pauli, "The Chaldee Paraphrase on the Prophet Isaiah Translated" (London, 1871); Levy, "Targum on Isaiah," I (London, 1889).[Ibid]



Holy Spirit


The Religious A priori